"It's not a spectator sport!"


Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804) German 

Immanuel. 1724-1804. German idealist philosopher who argued that reason is the means by which the phenomena of experience are translated into understanding. His classic works include Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and Critique of Practical Reason (1788), in which he put forward his system of ethics based on the categorical imperative. --Kant·an adj. &  n. [99dic]

John Newton (1725-1807)

Slave trader converted to Christianity, wrote Amazing Grace (1772, 1779)

Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774) Irish Protestant,

Oliver. 1730?-1774. British writer whose literary reputation rests on his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), the pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770), and the dramatic comedy She Stoops to Conquer (1773).

Jeremy Bentham; (1748-1832)

Bentham, Jeremy. 1748-1832. British writer, reformer, and philosopher who systematically analyzed law and legislation, thereby laying the foundations of utilitarianism. [99dic]

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von (GAY tuh) (1749-1832)

Johann Wolfgang von. 1749-1832. German writer and scientist. A master of poetry, drama, and the novel, he spent 50 years on his two-part dramatic poem Faust (published 1808 and 1832). He also conducted scientific research in various fields, notably botany, and held several governmental positions. --Goethean adj. [99dic]

Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821) French, Savoy,

Conservative  see\Berlin

Saint-Simon (1760-1825) French

[religion replaced by subjective rationalism] see\Berlin

                Comte de. Title of Claude Henri de Rouvroy. 1760-1825. French philosopher who advocated a society governed by technocrats, in which poverty would be abolished and religion replaced by rationalism. Among his works are The New Christianity (1825).

Hegel (1770-1831) German

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. 1770-1831. German philosopher who proposed that truth is reached by a continuing dialectic. His major works include Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1817) and The Philosophy of Right (1821). [99dic]

William Wordsworth (1770-1850) British, Romantic

William. 1770-1850. British poet whose most important collection, Lyrical Ballads (1798), published jointly with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped establish romanticism in England. He was appointed poet laureate in 1843. --Wordsworthian adj. [99dic]

Carl Gauss (1777-1855) German,

one of greatest of all mathematicians.

Karl Friedrich. 1777-1855. German mathematician and astronomer known for his contributions to algebra, differential geometry, probability theory, and number theory. [99dic]

 gauss (gous) n., pl. gauss or gauss·es. Abbr. G Physics. The centimeter-gram-second unit of magnetic induction, equal to one maxwell per square centimeter. [After Karl Friedrich Gauss.] [99dic]

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

Arthur. 1788-1860. German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering.


Auguste Comte (1798-1857) French,

Positivism, Socialism, science rejects democracy & religion, Hierarchy, 3 laws of history, three stages of history: Theology, Metaphysics, Scientific Socialism.

Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas (1804-1872)

Ludwig Andreas von. 1804-1872. German philosopher whose major work, The Essence of Christianity (1841), maintains that religion and divinity are projections of human nature. [99dic]

Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)

Benjamin. First Earl of Beaconsfield. Known as "Dizzy." 1804-1881. British politician who served as prime minister (1868 and 1874-1880) and was instrumental in extending the power and scope of the British Empire. [99dic]

Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) [AUG e see] Swiss, German, US, 

(Jean) Louis (Rodolphe). 1807-1873. Swiss-born American naturalist noted for his study of fossil fish and for recognizing from geologic evidence that ice ages had occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. [99dic]

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth (1807-1882 US

Henry Wadsworth. 1807-1882. American writer. The best-known 19th-century poet in the United States, he wrote The Song of Hiawatha (1855) and a translation (1865-1867) of Dante's Divine Comedy. [99dic]

Abe Lincoln  (1809-1865)

Abraham. 1809-1865. The 16th President of the United States (1861-1865), who led the Union during the Civil War and emancipated slaves in the South (1863). He was assassinated shortly after the end of the war by John Wilkes Booth. [99dic]

Richard Wagner (1813-1883)

Richard. 1813-1883. German composer known especially for his romantic operas, often based on Germanic legends. Among his works are Tannhäuser (1845) and the tetralogy Der Ring des Nibelungen (1853-1874). [99dic]

George Boole 1815

Boole, George. 1815-1864. British mathematician and logician who developed a calculus of symbolic logic. [99dic]

Karl Marx (1818-1883)

Karl. 1818-1883. German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.  [99dic]

Riemann (1826-1866) [40 yrs] German Mathematician.

ideas formed the math for Einstein's general theory of relativity.

Georg Friedrich Bernhard. 1826-1866. German mathematician who was a pioneer of non-Euclidean geometry. [99dic]

Lewis Carroll, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge. Pen name Lewis Carroll. 1832-1898. British mathematician and writer. His stories about Alice, invented to amuse the young daughter of a friend, appear in the classics Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking-Glass (1872).

Samuel Butler (1835-1902) English Poet,

The Way of All Flesh

Samuel. 1835-1902. British writer best known for The Way of All Flesh (1903), a semiautobiographical novel satirizing family life in mid-Victorian England. [99dic]

Henry George (1839-1879)

Well known during his lifetime, Progress and Poverty.

Henry. 1839-1897. American journalist and reformer known for his theories on taxation, contained in Progress and Poverty (1879). [99dic]

Ernst Schröder (1841-1902) German Math/Logic Intension.


William James (1842-1910)

His Father was a Swedenborgian mystic. James went on an Amazon trip with Agassiz (1807-1873).

William. 1842-1910. American psychologist and philosopher. A founder of pragmatism and the psychological movement of functionalism, he developed an approach to intellectual issues that greatly influenced American thought. His works include The Will to Believe (1897) and The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902). [99dic]

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844-1900)

Friedrich Wilhelm. 1844-1900. German philosopher who reasoned that Christianity's emphasis on the afterlife makes its believers less able to cope with earthly life. He argued that the ideal human being, the Ubermensch, would be able to channel passions creatively instead of suppressing them. His written works include Beyond Good and Evil (1886) and Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883-1892). --Nie"tzsche·an adj. &  n. [99dic]

Georg Cantor (1845-1918)

not [99dic]

Georges Sorel (1847-1922)

Georges. 1847-1922. French political philosopher whose works advanced the revolutionary syndicalist movement. His most important book is Reflections on Violence (1908). [99dic]

Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich (1849-1936) Russian

Ivan Petrovich. 1849-1936. Russian physiologist who is best known for discovering the conditioned response. He won a 1904 Nobel Prize for research on the nature of digestion. --Pavlovian adj.  [99dic]

Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (1850-1894) Edinburgh, Scotland


1850? Baha`i faith: religion

founded in Iran in the mid-19th century by Mirza Hoseyn 'Ali Nuri, who is known as  Baha` Ullah (Arabic: "Glory of God").

                Ba·ha'i (bä-hä adj. 1. Of or relating to a religion founded in 1863 in Iran and emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. --Ba·ha'i n. A teacher of or a believer in this faith. [Persian bah³'º, a follower of Bah³'ull³h (see Bahaullah.), "the Splendor of God". bah³'º, from bah³', splendor, from Arabic.] --Bahaism --Bahaist n. [99dic]