"It's not a spectator sport!"

Egypt, founded 32 Cent BC. Wiki 2008 Oct, Egypt History

"The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. The Nile valley forms a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the east and west by deserts, to the north by the sea and to the south by the Cataracts of the Nile. The need to have a single authority to manage the waters of the Nile led to the creation of the world's first state in Egypt in about 3000 BC. Egypt's peculiar geography made it a difficult country to attack, which is why Pharaonic Egypt was for so long an independent and self-contained state. The Nubians and Hyksos were among the earliest foreign rulers of Egypt, but the ancient Egyptians regained control of their country soon after their invasions. The Neo-Assyrian Empire also controlled Egypt for a while before native Egyptians regained control.


"Once Egypt did succumb to foreign rule, however, it proved unable to escape from it, and for 2,400 years, Egypt was governed by a series of foreign powers: the Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Rashidun, Umayyads, Abbasids, Ottomans, French, and British. At certain periods during these 2,400 years, Egypt was independently governed under the Ptolemies, Ikhshidids, Fatimids, Ayyubids, Mamluks and Muhammad Ali. The founders and rulers of these governments, however, were not native to Egypt.


"When Gamal Abdel Nasser (President of Egypt) (1954-1970) remarked that he was the first native Egyptian to exercise sovereign power in the country since Pharaoh Nectanebo II, deposed by the Persians in 343 BC, he was exaggerating only slightly.


"In this encyclopedia, Egyptian history has been divided into eight periods:

History of ancient Egypt: 3100 BC to 525 BC

History of Achaemenid Egypt: 525 BC to 332 BC

History of Ptolemaic Egypt: 332 BC to 30 BC

History of Roman Egypt: 30 BC to AD 639

History of Arab Egypt: 639 to 1517

History of Ottoman Egypt: 1517 to 1805

History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty: 1805 to 1882

History of modern Egypt: since 1882"


[The above is from Wiki 2008 Oct, Egypt History

India 34 Cent BC, [Wiki 2008 Oct India History]

"The history of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent, from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE. Its Mature Harappan period lasted from 2600-1900 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization collapsed at the beginning of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains and which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms Magadha, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th century BCE, who propagated their Shramanic philosophies among the masses.


"Later, successive empires and kingdoms ruled the region and enriched its culture - from the Achaemenid Persian empire[1] around 543 BCE, to Alexander the Great[2] in 326 BCE. The Indo-Greek Kingdom, founded by Demetrius of Bactria, included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE; it reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture.


"The subcontinent was united under the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. It subsequently became fragmented, with various parts ruled by numerous Middle kingdoms for the next ten centuries. Its northern regions were united once again in the 4th century CE, and remained so for two centuries thereafter, under the Gupta Empire. This period, of Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known among its admirers as the "Golden Age of India." During the same time, and for several centuries afterwards, Southern India, under the rule of the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas and Pandyas, experienced its own golden age, during which Indian civilization, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of south-east Asia.


"Islam arrived on the subcontinent in 712 CE, when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab,[3] setting the stage for several successive Islamic invasions between the 10th and 15th centuries CE from Central Asia, leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent, including the Ghaznavid, the Ghorid, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. Mughal rule came to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent. Mughal rulers introduced middle-eastern art and architecture to India. In addition to the Mughals, several independent Hindu kingdoms, such as the Maratha Empire, the Vijayanagara Empire and various Rajput kingdoms, flourished contemporaneously, in Western and Southern India respectively. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early eighteenth century, which provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company[4] gained ascendancy over South Asia.


"Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century, India was gradually annexed by the British East India Company. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the First War of Indian Independence, after which India was directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline.


"During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, and later joined by the Muslim League. The subcontinent gained independence from Great Britain in 1947, after being partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan. Pakistan's eastern wing became the nation of Bangladesh in 1971." [read on --- much more]

Babylon and Babylonia, 23rd cent BC, 18th cent BC,

Babylonia was an empire of Mesopotamia in the Euphrates River valley. The city of Babylon was its capital. Babylonia flourished under Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar II. It declined after 562 B.C. and fell to the Persians in 539. [AmHerCD99

" Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged when Hammurabi (fl. ca. 1728 - 1686 BC) created an empire out of the territories of the former kingdoms of Sumer and Akkad. The Amorites being a Semitic people, Babylonia adopted the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use, and retained the Sumerian language for religious use, which by that time was no longer a spoken language. The Akkadian and Sumerian cultures played a major role in later Babylonian culture, and the region would remain an important cultural center, even under outside rule. The earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the 23rd century BC. ... ... ... In 729 BC, Babylon was conquered ... and remained under Assyrian rule for a century, until the 620s BC revolt of Nabopolassar." [Wiki 2008oct, Babylonian Empire] [Read the entire article if you can find the time.]

China, 17th Cent BC, written history, Wiki 2008 oct China History

"Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River (Chinese: pinyin: Huáng Hé) valley in the Neolithic era. The written history of China begins with the Shang Dynasty (ca. 1600 BC - ca. 1100 BC).[1] Turtle shells with ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to as early as 1500 BC.[2] The origins of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy, developed during the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC to 256 BC) that followed the Shang. It was the longest lasting dynasty and spans the period in which the written script evolved from ancient oracle script to the beginnings of modern Chinese writing." [read on - long article]]


Tyre (tºr). 11th cent BC

Tyre was an ancient Phoenician city on the eastern Mediterranean Sea in present-day southern Lebanon. The capital of Phoenicia after the 11th century B.C., it was a flourishing commercial center noted for its purple dyestuffs and rich, silken clothing. Tyre was besieged and captured by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. and was finally destroyed by Moslems in A.D. 1291.

Carthage 814 BC: 9th, Phoenician, Latin CARTHAGO,

Carthage was a great city of antiquity, founded on the north coast of Africa by the Phoenicians of Tyre in 814 BC. It is now a residential suburb of the city of Tunis. Its Phoenician name means New Town. 146 B.C. Romans destroyed Carthage. 29 B.C. Carthage rebuild by Augustus. 400 A.D. Vandals. 698 Arabs again destroyed Carthage -

Syracuse: 8th Cent BC

A city of southeast Sicily, Italy, on the Ionian Sea south-southeast of Catania. Founded by colonists from Corinth in the eighth century B.C., it reached the height of its power in the fifth century but fell to the Romans in 212. Population, 117,689.

Etruscans: 8th Cent BC

The Etruscans emerged organized in city-states, at end of 8th cent. from iron age Villanova Civilization in present Tuscany, Campania & part of the Po valley. - major power in Italy  to 5th cent. retaining control of trade routes from the Mediterranean to Northern Europe. They ruled  tribes of Latium & probably founded Rome as a strategic stronghold on a major trade route. There language is still a linguistic mystery. [See Etruscan.]


Ionia flourished 8th cent BC:

Ionia is a region of western Asia Minor along the coast of the Aegean Sea. Greeks settled colonies here before 1000 B.C. Seaports of Ionia flourished from c. 8th century B.C. until the Turkish conquest of the 15th century A.D.


Sa·mos (s³"m¼s", s²m"½s, sä"môs).

An island of east Greece in the Aegean Sea off the west coast of Turkey. First inhabited in the Bronze Age, later colonized by Ionian Greek commercial and maritime power in the sixth century B.C. Subsequently controlled by Persia, Athens, Sparta, Rome, Byzantium, and the Ottoman Empire, the island became part of modern Greece in 1913.