"It's not a spectator sport!"


The primary sources for the following is preserved in written history backed up by other evidence.

Abraham  (flourised about 1900 BC)

Around 1900 BC, Abram, who was a son of Terah, migrated with his family from UR (now Iraq) to Haran (a city near modern Turkish-Syrian border). After Terah died they moved to Canaan. [Lukefahr p 43) Abraham had two sons. Ishmael was the son of Hagar, an Egyptian servant of Sarah. Isaac, born after Ishmael,  was the son of Sarah, Abraham's lawful wife. According to the Old Testament, God ordered Abraham to sacrifice Isaac but at the last minute offered a reprieve and supplied a lamb instead. Isaac became the father of the Jewish nation. Ishmael, cast out after Isaac was, is often held to be the forerunner of the Arabs. Lot was Abraham's nephew. The Old Testament says that Lot's his wife turned into a pillar of salt when she looked back as they fled Sodom.

Joseph (flourished about 1750 BC)

Genesis, the first book of the Old Testament, concludes with the death of Joseph in Egypt about 1750 BC. 500 yrs lapsed before book of Exodus [Lukefahr 1998 p45]


Hammurabi  1,750 BC: Died,

Babylonian king (1792-1750) who made Babylon the chief Mesopotamian kingdom and codified the laws of Mesopotamia and Sumeria. [AmHerCD99]

"The city of Babylon obtained hegemony over Mesopotamia under its sixth ruler, Hammurabi (fl. ca. 1728 - 1686 BC (short)). He was a very efficient ruler, establishing a bureaucracy, with taxation and centralized government, and giving the region stability after turbulent times, thereby transforming it into the central power of Mesopotamia. One of the most important works of this "First Dynasty of Babylon", as it was called by the native historians, was the compilation of a code of laws. This was made by order of Hammurabi after the expulsion of the Elamites and the settlement of his kingdom. In 1901, a copy of the Code of Hammurabi was discovered on a stele by J. De Morgan and V. Scheil at Susa, where it had later been taken as plunder. That copy is now in the Louvre." [Wiki 2008oct, Babylonian Empire]


Moses  1,250 BC:

In the Old Testament, the Hebrew prophet and lawgiver who led the Israelites out of Egypt. [99dic]

Most scholars place the Exodus led by Moses about 1250 B.C. during the reign of Ramses II   [Lukefahr 1998 p46]

Homer (fl 850 BC)

fl. 850 B.C.. Greek epic poet. Two of the greatest works in Western literature, the Iliad and the Odyssey, are attributed to him. [99dic]

Zoroaster (c.628 BC-c.551 BC) 

Persian prophet founded Zoroastrianism -- set forth in Zend-Avesta -- worship Ormazd in the context of a universal struggle between the forces of light and of darkness.

Omazd also Ormuzd (ôr"m...zd) n.

The chief deity of Zoroastrianism, the creator of the world, the source of light, and the embodiment of good. See AHURA MAZDA.]

Nebuchadnezzar II (630?-562 B.C.)

King of Babylonia (605-562) who captured (597) and destroyed (586) Jerusalem and carried the Israelites into captivity in Babylonia.

Tarquin: Reigned? 616-578 BC.  4th cent:

Romans defeated Tarquinii, ancient city, central Italy northwest of Rome. Head of the Etruscan League, -- lost independence 3rd cent.  The modern village of Tarquinia has a museum displaying notable Etruscan antiquities.