"It's not a spectator sport!"


Pythagoras (580-500 )

Pythagoras (p¹-th²g"...r-...s)  fl. sixth century B.C.. Greek philosopher and mathematician who founded in southern Italy a school that emphasized the study of musical harmony and geometry. He proved the universal validity of the Pythagorean theorem and is considered the first true mathematician. [99dic]

Buddha (563-483) Originally Siddhartha Gautama. 563?-483? B.C..

Indian mystic and founder of Buddhism. He began preaching after achieving supreme enlightenment at the age of 35. n. 1. One who has achieved a state of perfect spiritual enlightenment in accordance with the teachings of Buddha. 2. A representation or likeness of Buddha. [Sanskrit buddha-, enlightened, past participle of bodhati, he awakes. ]

Parmenides Born 515? B.C..

Greek philosopher and a founder of the Eleatic school.

Pericles (490?-429 BC)

Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon. [AmHerCD99]

Protagoras (485-410 Greek Sophist,

fl. fifth century B.C.. Greek philosopher. Considered the first Sophist, he taught a philosophy based on his maxim "Man is the measure of all things." Protagorean adj. [99dic]

Socrates (470-399BC)

Greek philosopher who initiated a question-and-answer method of teaching as a means of achieving self-knowledge. His theories of virtue and justice have survived through the writings of Plato, his most important pupil. Socrates was tried for corrupting the minds of Athenian youth and subsequently put to death (399). [99dic]

Thucydides  (460?-400? B.C)..

Thu·cyd·i·des  460?-400? B.C.. Greek historian. Considered the greatest historian of antiquity, he wrote a critical history of the Peloponnesian War that contains the funeral oration of Pericles.


Democritus  "the Laughing Philosopher." 460?-370? B.C.. Greek,

Known as "the Laughing Philosopher." 460?-370? B.C.. Greek philosopher who developed an atomist theory of the universe and espoused the doctrine that pleasure, along with self-control, is the goal of human life. [99dic]

atomist theory, pleasure and self-control, is goal of human life.

Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC), [5th cent] war

The Peloponnesian War was fought between Greek city-states, Athens and Sparta. Each stood at the head of alliances that, between them, included nearly every Greek city-state. The fighting engulfed the Greek world, and was recorded by Thucydides (460?-400?)

Plato (427?-347 BC)

Greek philosopher. A follower of Socrates, he founded the Academy (386), where he taught and wrote for much of the rest of his life. Plato presented his ideas in the form of dramatic dialogues, as in The Republic. [99dic]

See Plato\Know on a priori and a posteriori knowledge.

Timaeus on Being vs Becoming

Shorey List of Plato's Works: Euthyphro (On Holiness), Apology (On Ethics), Crito (On Duty in Action); Hippias Minor, Hippias Major, Ion, Charmides, Laches, Lysis, Protagoras, Gorgias, Meno, Euthydemus, Phaedo (On the Soul), Menexenus, Symposium, Phaedrus, Republic, Cratylus (On rectitude in naming); Theaetetus, Paremides, Sophist, Politicus, Philebus, Timaeus, Critias, Laws, Epinomis,  (There are Several Doubtful and Spurious works)

note: These dialogues are easy to read. I have several files on Plato.


Aristotle (384-322BC) (62 yrs)

Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics. His philosophical system promotes theory, empirical observation and logic. Aristotle explain essential operations of the syllogism and showed how the syllogism it can be used as a pattern of human reasoning. He offered several ways of reliably distinguishing valid from invalid deduction. He profoundly influenced Western thought.

Alexander The Great (356-323 BC)

Alexander III1. Known as "Alexander the Great." 356-323 B.C.. King of Macedonia (336-323) and conquerer of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Babylonia, and Persia. His reign marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Age. 99dic

Unified Greece and spread Greek Civilization to Egypt, Persia, etc.

Euclid of Alexandria (325?-265?) ~60 years, Greek 

Third century B.C.. Greek mathematician who applied the deductive principles of logic to geometry, thereby deriving statements from clearly defined axioms. 99dic

First Punic War: 264-241: Rome gained control of Sicily