"It's not a spectator sport!"


Archimedes (287?-212 B.C.) 75 yrs.

born & lived Greek colony of Syracuse, Sicily. He studied at Alexandria on the African coast of the Mediterranean, Against orders of Marcellus, Archimedes was killed when the Romans captured Syracuse. Some say a soldier found him in his study drawing geometric designs in the sand. Archimedes told him not to spoil the diagram. The soldier, not recognizing him and insulted by the order, killed Archimedes. There are other versions. Marcellus built a tomb for Archimedes.


Archimedes was a Greek mathematician, engineer, and physicist. He is among the most important intellectual figures of antiquity. He discovered formulas for the area and volume of various geometric figures, applied geometry to hydrostatics and mechanics, devised numerous ingenious mechanisms, such as the Archimedean screw, and discovered the principle of buoyancy. --Archimedean adj. [99dic

Hannibal (247 to 183 BC)

Carthaginian general who crossed the Alps in 218 with about 35,000 men and routed Roman armies at Lake Trasimeno (217) and Cannae (216). He was later defeated at the Battle of Zama (202). [99dic]

Ennius Quintus (239-169? BC)

Cato the Elder (234-149 BC)

Marcus Porcius. Known as "the Elder" or "the Censor." 234-149 B.C.. Roman politician and general who wrote the first history of Rome. As censor he attempted to restore simplicity to Roman life. [99dic]

2nd Punic War: 218-201, Battle of Cannae Aug 2, 216 BC, Cato ~18

3rd Punic War: 149-146: Carthage was destroyed

Cicero, Marcus Tullius. (106-43 B.C.)

Roman statesman, orator, and philosopher. A major figure in the last years of the Republic, he is best known for his orations against Catiline and for his mastery of Latin prose. --Cic"e·ro"ni·an adj.

C147/McKeon/p30f - interesting history of logic concerning Cicero

Cicero's influence on Kant B433/Chap 7:

Pompey, (106-48 B.C.) Disputation, Invention

Pompey  Known as "the Great.". Roman general and political leader. With Caesar and Crassus he formed a ruling triumvirate (60-50) but was later defeated by Caesar and murdered in Egypt. [99dic

                216/p274-275 Plutarch: When he [Pompey] came to Rhodes, he attended the lectures of all the philosophers there, and gave to every one of them a talent. Posidonius had published the disputation which he held before him against Hermagoras the rhetorician, upon the subject of Invention in general. At Athens, also, he showed similar munificence to the philosophers and gave fifty talents towards the repairing and beautifying the city.


Caesar, Julius (100-44 B.C.)

In full Gaius Julius Caesar. Roman general, statesman, and historian who invaded Britain (55), crushed the army of his political enemy Pompey (48), pursued other enemies to Egypt, where he installed Cleopatra as queen (47), returned to Rome, and was given a mandate by the people to rule as dictator for life (45). On March 15 of the following year he was murdered by a group of republicans led by Cassius and Brutus, who feared he intended to establish a monarchy ruled by himself. --Caesarean or Caesarian


Cato The Younger (95-46 BC)

Marcus Porcius. Known as "the Younger." 95-46 B.C.. Roman politician and great-grandson of Cato the Elder. A conservative opponent of Julius Caesar's political ambitions, he supported Pompey against Caesar in the civil war and committed suicide after Caesar's decisive victory at Thapsus.

Sallust (86-34 BC)

Roman politician and historian known for his account of the conspiracy of Catiline.

Virgil (70-19 BC) also Vergil

Roman poet. His greatest work is the epic poem Aeneid, which tells of the wanderings of Aeneas after the sack of Troy. --Virgilian adj.

Horace (65-08 BC)

Roman lyric poet. His Odes and Satires have exerted a major influence on English poetry.

Augustus (63BC - AD14) First Roman Emp. (27 BC.-AD 14)

(Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus)

First emperor of Rome (27 B.C.-A.D. 14) and grand-nephew of Julius Caesar. He defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra in 31 and subsequently gained control over the empire. In 29 he was named emperor, and in 27 he was given the honorary title Augustus.

Epictetus, AD 60? - 117?

Greek Stoic philosopher who believed that one should act in life as one would at a banquet, by taking a polite portion of all that is offered.


Discourses Book I, Chap 17: It is for this reason, I suppose, that men put the process of logic in the forefront, just as we put the testing of the measure before the measuring of the corn. And if we do not determine first what is the measure and what is the scale, how shall we be able to measure or weigh anything? So in the sphere of thought if we have not fully grasped and trained to perfection the instrument by which we judge other things, shall we ever be able to [acquire?] accurate knowledge? Of course it is impossible.  [Gin: This thought is slightly off whack. All concepts are purely intellectual. ]


Livy (59BC-AD17)

Roman historian. His history of Rome originally consisted of 142 volumes, of which only 35 survive.

Ovid (43 BC-AD 17)

Roman poet known for his explorations of love, especially the Art of Love (c. 1 B.C.) and Metamorphoses (c. A.D. 8). --Ovidian adj.

Martial (mär"sh...l). fl. first century B.C..

Roman poet known for his books of epigrams.

Tiberius;  (42BC-AD37) [2nd Emp of Rome 11 AD-37 AD]

Chosen by Augustus to be heir to the throne, he was a suspicious, tyrannical ruler. --Tiberian adj.

Aelius Sejanus (20 BC?-31 AD) Tiberius trusted Sejanus.

Roman courtier who wielded great political power as an adviser to Tiberius. [99dic]

Seneca Younger (BC 4 - 65 A.D)

Seneca, Lucius Annaeus. Known as "the Younger." Roman Stoic philosopher, writer, and tutor of Nero. His works include treatises on rhetoric and governance and numerous plays that influenced Renaissance and Elizabethan drama.