"It's not a spectator sport!"


Jesus 0000?

A teacher and prophet who lived in the first century of this era and whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God and the Christ. [99dic]


Died c. A.D. 67. The chief of the 12 Apostles. He is traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Rome. [99dic]

Caligula, Gaius Caesar  (AD 12-41) [Emp: 37-41]

Originally Gaius Caesar. A.D. 12-41. Emperor of Rome (37-41) who succeeded his adoptive father, Tiberius. After a severe illness, he displayed the ruthlessness, extravagance, and megalomania that led to his assassination.

Pliny The Elder (AD 23-79)

Known as "the Elder." Roman scholar and naturalist. He wrote the 37-volume Historia Naturalis. [99dic]

Nero (AD 37 - 68) [Emperor of Rome (54-68]

Ne·ro Emperor of Rome (54-68) whose early reign was dominated by his mother, Agrippina the Younger. He had his mother and wife murdered, and he may have set the Great Fire of Rome (64). His cruelty and irresponsibility provoked widespread revolts, which led to his suicide. --Neronian adj. [99dic]

Quintilian (35?-95  AD)

first who received a state salary to teach Latin rhetoric

                Originally Marcus Fabius Quintilianus. First century A.D.. Roman rhetorician whose major work, the Institutio Oratorio, discusses the complete education and career of an orator. [99dic]

Lucan (39-65 AD)

Roman poet who wrote the Pharsalia, an epic account of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey.


Greek biographer and philosopher. He wrote Parallel Lives, a collection of biographies that Shakespeare used in his Roman plays. --Plutarchan or Plutarchian adj. [99dic]

                He also wrote the Moralia, about 27 volumes on morals.

                R431vi/DRYDEN/Plutarch/xiv-xvi: - he (Plutarch) applied himself with extreme diligence - - - that he might leave nothing unswept behind him.  And as he was continuously in company with men of learning in all professions, so his memory was always on the stretch to receive and lodge their discourses; and his judgment perpetually employed in separating his notions, and distinguishing which were fit to be preserved and which to be rejected.

                R431vi/DRYDEN/Plutarch/xvi: Plutarch - - - makes mention of those collections or commonplaces which he had long since drawn together for his own particular occasions; and it is from this rich cabinet that he has taken out those excellent pieces which he has distributed to posterity, and which give us occasion to deplore the loss of the residue, which either the injury of time or the negligence of copiers have denied us.

                R431vi/DRYDEN/Plutarch/xvii:  For we may perceive in his (Plutarch's) writings the desire he had to imprint his precepts in the souls of his readers, and to lodge morality in families--nay, even to exalt it to the thrones of sovereign princes, and to make it the rule and measure of their government. 


Tacitus (AD 55-120)

Tac·i·tus, Publius Cornelius. A.D. 55?-120?. Roman public official and historian whose two greatest works, Histories and Annals, concern the period from the death of Augustus (A.D. 14) to the death of Domitian (96).

Juvenal  (A.D. 60? to 140?)

Juvenal. A.D. 60?-140?. Roman satirist whose works denounced the corruption and extravagance of the privileged classes in Rome.

Pliny The Younger (AD 62?-113?)

Roman consul and writer, the nephew of Pliny the Elder. His letters provide valuable information about Roman life.

Marcus Aurelius (121-180)

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus  A.D. 121-180. Philosopher and emperor of Rome (161-180) who wrote Meditations, a classic work of stoicism.

Claudius Ptolemy (125AD?? to ??)

astronomical observations at Alexandria, Egypt ~AD 150,  THE ALMAGEST, rejected the idea that the earth moves, earth is ROUND, GRAVITY toward earth's center, earth, motionless & center the universe, moon, sun, and planets move around the earth at various speeds, Stars spots of light on dome, 1022 stars and 48 constellations, Eviction' (moon's orbit), rafraction of light in different densities, ancient Chinese used 3 as the value of pi, ~1650 B.C. Egyptians improved. Ptolemy calculated equivalent of 3.1416. After decimals came in use in the 1600's men labored to find an exact value  -now know that this is impossible, See Degree

Tertullian (~165-220)

Carthaginian theologian who converted to Christianity (c. 193), broke with the Catholic Church (c. 207), and formed his own schismatic sect. His writings greatly influenced Western theology.

Mani (215-276/7) Manichæism, Babylonian, Persian,

Zoroastrian Dualism, Babylonian folklore, Buddhist ethics, Some Christian elements. Two battling eternal principles, good and evil, are predominant in this fusion of ideas. 

                Persian prophet and founder of Manichaeism. He professed that the world is a fusion of the equal but opposite forces of good and evil. [99dic]