"It's not a spectator sport!"


Ramon Lull (1232-1316) Majorca

Dante (1265-1321) Florence, Italy,

Dante Alighieri. 1265-1321. Italian poet whose masterpiece, The Divine Comedy (completed 1321), details his visionary progress through Hell and Purgatory, escorted by Virgil, and through Heaven, guided by his lifelong idealized love Beatrice. --Dantean adj. &  n. --Dantesque adj.

John Duns Scotus (1266-1308)

Known as "the Subtle Doctor." 1265?-1308. Scottish Franciscan monk and theologian who wrote On the First Principal and disputed Thomas Aquinas's harmony of faith and reason.

a Franciscan student and later professor at Oxford and Paris and the most gifted of the opponents of the Thomist school. B266/Runes/1960p286f

Francis Petrarch (1304-1374)

Tuscany Italy, Poems on his love for the mysterious Laura. 

1304-1374. Italian poet, scholar, and humanist who is famous for Canzoniere, a collection of love lyrics. --Petrarchan  adj.

1337-1453 Hundred Years War

-- extended over the reigns of 5 English and 5 French kings who fought for control of France -consisted of a succession of wars broken by truces and treaties. The English loss of Normandy in 1204 was the basic cause of the war. ... English won most of the battles but eventually France won the war.[wb]

1338 Black Death hit England

Black Death hit England. See Doomsday Book © 1992, fiction by Connie Willis.

Black Death n. A form of bubonic plague, caused by the bacillus Yersinia (or  Pasturella) pestis, that was pandemic throughout Europe and much of Asia in the 14th century. [From the dark splotches it causes on its victims.] [99dic]

Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)

Geoffrey. 1340?-1400. English poet regarded as the greatest literary figure of medieval England. His works include The Book of the Duchess (1369), Troilus and Criseyde (c. 1385), and his masterwork, The Canterbury Tales (1387-1400). --Chaucerian  adj. &  n.

Geoffrey Chaucer was born into a turbulent century, one which saw change and decay in almost every institution. [B172i/p168]

Catherine of Siena (1347-1380): -

Saint. 1347-1380. Italian religious leader who mediated a peace between the Florentines and Pope Urban VI in 1378. [99dic]

Catherine was 24th of 25 children. Her father was a wool dyer of comfortable means but politically one of the popolo minuto in a city of family feuds, class conflict, and revolution.

She wrote many letters, over 400 have been preserved. Her best known writing is Catherine of Siena, The Dialogue completed two year before her death. She learned to read about age18, but her learning started when very young. She learned through learned discussions with family and friends. She learned to write in her late 20's. Most of her work was dictated. She died age 33. She is one of two women doctors of the Catholic Church.  

Brunelleschi (Brunellesco?), Filippo Di Ser (1377-1446),

Brunelleschi, Filippo. 1377-1446. Italian architect celebrated for his work during the Florentine Renaissance. His greatest achievement is the octagonal ribbed dome of the Florence cathedral.

Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471)

Thomas à Kempis. 1380?-1471. German ecclesiastic and writer of devotional literature, most probably including The Imitation of Christ (1426). [99dic]

Gutenberg (1395?-1468?)

Johann or Johannes. 1400?-1468?. German printer who is traditionally considered the inventor of movable type. His Mazarin Bible (c. 1455) is believed to be the first book printed with such type.

William Caxton (1424-1491) 67yrs TRUTH REASON RELIGION

English printer who published the first book in English, Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye (c. 1475).

1440 Printing Press, 1455 First book printed using movable type

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 

Italian explorer in the service of Spain who determined that the earth was round and attempted to reach Asia by sailing west from Europe, thereby discovering America (1492). He made three subsequent voyages to the Caribbean in his quest for a sea route to China. [99dic]

Richard III (1452-1485) 33 yrs STRANGE

Richard III. 1452-1485. King of England (1483-1485) who claimed the throne after imprisoning the sons of his deceased brother Edward IV. Richard's death at the Battle of Bosworth Field brought an end to the Wars of the Roses. [99dic]

Josephine Tey refutes this version of Richard in her mystery novel The Daughter of Time 1951