"It's not a spectator sport!"



1452-1519. Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503). [99dic]

Erasmus (1466-1536) 70 yrs Dutch TRUTH REASON RELIGION

Desiderius. 1466?-1536. Dutch Renaissance scholar and Roman Catholic theologian who sought to revive classical texts from antiquity, restore simple Christian faith based on Scripture, and eradicate the improprieties of the medieval Church. His works include The Manual of the Christian Knight (1503) and The Praise of Folly (1509). [99dic]

Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince (1513) EXPEDIENCY RULES

Machiavelli Niccolò. 1469-1527. Italian political theorist whose book The Prince (1513) describes the achievement and maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations. [99dic]

Copernicus, (1473-1543) Polish TRUTH REASON RELIGION

Copernicus, Nicolaus. 1473-1543. Polish astronomer who advanced the theory that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun, disrupting the Ptolemaic system of astronomy. [99dic]

Michelangelo (1475-1564) RELIGION ART CREATIVITY

Michelangelo Buonarroti. 1475-1564. Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who created some of the greatest works of art of all time, including the marble sculpture David (1501), the paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (1508-1512), and the plans for Saint Peter's Church in Rome.

Thomas More (1478-1535) 57 yrs RELIGION TRUTH REASON

More, Sir Thomas. 1478-1535. English politician, humanist scholar, and writer who refused to comply with the Act of Supremacy, by which English subjects were enjoined to recognize Henry VIII's authority over the pope, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London and beheaded for treason. His political essay Utopia (1516), speculates about life under an ideal government. More was canonized in 1935. [99dic]

                B54/Santillana/Age of Adventure/1956/p92: In youth Thomas More had taught Augustine's City of God, and drempt of bringing it to earth. The price for making historical reality rational is, unfortunately, unless we bring to it Hegelian Logic, to freeze it into an unvarying order. [Gin Note 8/91:  Santillana has a strange notion of logic, rationalism, reality, and history. Throughout his book he makes odd remarks. P50 he praises Nicholas of Cusa who shows at every point a reality of deep paradox, the ‘coincidence of opposites', which is beyond common sense but reveals God in all things and restores the sense of mystery of being. He seems to imply that logic and common sense oppose ‘mystery of being'. From my point of view, this interpretation is an error.]

Martin Luther (1483-1546) RELIGION, minus reason

Martin. 1483-1546. German theologian and leader of the Reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone rather than by works caused his excommunication from the Catholic Church (1521). Luther confirmed the Augsburg Confession in 1530, effectively establishing the Lutheran Church.

William Lilly (1488-1522) LOGIC BOOK

Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) RELIGION TRUTH REASON

Ignatius of Loyola, Saint. 1491-1556. Spanish ecclesiastic who founded the Jesuits and was a leader of the Counter Reformation.

Juan Luis (Ludoviscus) Vives (1492-1540)

Henry VIII (1491-1547) STRANGE

Henry VIII. 1491-1547. King of England (1509-1547) who succeeded his father, Henry VII. His divorce from Catherine of Aragon, his first wife, compelled him to break from the Catholic Church by the Act of Supremacy (1534). [99dic]

John Calvin (1509-1564) French, to Geneva RELIGION REASON

John. 1509-1564. French-born Swiss Protestant theologian who broke with the Roman Catholic Church (1533) and set forth the tenets of his theology, known today as Presbyterianism, in Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536). [99dic]

John Knox (1514?-1572) founder of Scottish Presbyterianism  RELIGION, REASON,

Knox, John. 1514?-1572. Scottish religious reformer and founder of Scottish Presbyterianism. While living in exile (1553-1559) during the reign of Mary Queen of Scots, a Catholic, he came under the influence of John Calvin. Returning to Scotland (1559), Knox led the struggle for religious reform. With the drafting of the Confessions of Faith (1560), Protestantism became the established religion in Scotland.

Teresa of Avila (1515-1582) Spain, REASON TRUTH RELIGION

Saint. Known as "Theresa of Ávila." 1515-1582. Spanish nun and mystical writer who founded the reformed order of Carmelites (1562). Her works include The Way of Perfection, published posthumously. [99dic]

Peter Ramus  (1515-1572) LOGIC BOOK, minus plus minus

Thomas Wilson (1525-1581) LOGIC BOOK

Montaigne (1533-1592) Plus, Minus, Plus,

Michel Eyquem de. 1533-1592. French essayist whose discursive, lively personal essays are considered the highest expression of 16th-century French prose. [99dic]

North, Sir Thomas (1535-1601) super Influential translations

Sir Thomas. 1535?-1601?. English translator whose edition of the works of Plutarch served as a source for many of Shakespeare's plays. [99dic]

Bellarmine (1542-1621)

Council of Trent, Italy (1545-1563)