"It's not a spectator sport!"


John Locke (1632-1704) TRUTH, REASON

John. 1632-1704. English philosopher. In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) he set out the principles of empiricism, and his Two Treatises on Government (1690) influenced the Declaration of Independence. [99dic]

Henry ALDRICH (1647-1710), LOGIC BOOK 1691

Henry ALDRICH (1647-1710) printed 1691 for Carlisle's son.


Cotton Mather (1663-1728) REASON TRUTH RELIGION

Increase. 1639-1723. American clergyman and writer. He and his son Cotton (1663-1728) exerted great theological and political influence on the colony of Massachusetts through their staunch Puritanism and prolific writing. [99dic]

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

Sir Isaac. 1642-1727. English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theories of universal gravitation, terrestrial mechanics, and color. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple. --New·to"ni·an adj. [99dic]

Leibnitz or Leibniz (lºb"n¹ts, lºp"-), Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von. (1646-1716)

Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von. 1646-1716. German philosopher and mathematician. He invented differential and integral calculus independently of Newton and proposed the metaphysical theory that we live in "the best of all possible worlds." [99dic]

Daniel Defoe (1660-1731), Robinson Crusoe (1719)

Daniel. 1660-1731. British writer whose most famous novel, Robinson Crusoe (1719), was inspired by the exploits of a Scottish sailor and castaway, Alexander Selkirk. He also wrote Moll Flanders and A Journal of the Plague Year (both 1722). [99dic]

John Trenchard (1662-1723)

Samuel Wesley (1662-1735) [Father of John and Charles] 

John. 1703-1791. British religious leader who founded Methodism (1738). His brother Charles (1707-1788) wrote thousands of hymns, including "Hark, the Herald Angels Sing." [99dic]

Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

1667-1745. Irish-born English writer known for his satirical works, including Gulliver's Travels (1726) and A Modest Proposal (1729).

Shaftesbury 1671-1713 [moral sense]

First Earl of. Title of Anthony Ashley Cooper. 1621-1683. English politician. Originally a Royalist, he later opposed Charles II in the English Civil War and is considered the founder of the Whig Party. [99dic]

Joseph Addison (1672-1719)

Joseph. 1672-1719. English essayist whose witty and elegant works appeared in The Tatler, founded by Richard Steele in 1709, and The Spectator, founded by Addison and Steele in 1711. --Addisonian adj.

Richard Steele (1672-1729)

Sir Richard. 1672-1729. English writer of plays and essays who founded and edited The Tatler (1709-1711) and, with Joseph Addison, The Spectator (1711-1712). [99dic]

Isaac Watts (1674-1748)

Watts, Isaac. 1674-1748. English poet, theologian, and hymn writer whose sacred poems include The Psalms of David Imitated (1719). [99dic]

James Logan (1674-1751)

Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745)

Horace or Horatio. Fourth Earl of Orford. 1717-1797. British writer and historian whose correspondence and memoirs provide valuable information about his era. He wrote The Castle of Otranto (1764), considered the first Gothic novel in English.

Bolingbroke (1678-1751) First Viscount.

Originally Henry Saint John. English statesman, orator, writer. A Jacobite -- much time in exile --  The Idea of a Patriot King (1749)

George Berkeley (1685-1753)

Irish prelate opposed materialism of Hobbes and held that to be is to perceive or to be perceived, see Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710)

1688: Glorious Revolution: Wm&Mary in; James II (House of Stuart) out.

Alexander Pope  (1688-1744) English,

Stunted, Raised Cath. Excluded from regular Schools. The Rape of the Lock (1712) and The Dunciad (1728). Essay on Man

Swedenborg, Emanuel (1688-1772)

Swedish scientist, theologian -- visions led to the Church of the New Jerusalem after his death. Swedenborgian adj. &  n.

Montesquieu (1689-1755)

French Enlightenment, Parisian Letters (1721), a veiled attack on the monarchy & the ancien régime, -- The Spirit of the Laws (1748)

Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746)

Thomas Gordon (1698-1750)

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

1706-1790. American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove. [99dic]

David Hume (1711-1776)

David. 1711-1776. British philosopher and historian who argued that human knowledge arises only from sense experience. His works include A Treatise of Human Nature (1739-1740) and Political Discourses (1752). [99dic]

Frederick the Great  (1712-1786), King of Prussia (1740-1786)


Frederick II2. Known as "Frederick the Great." 1712-1786. King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe. [00dic]

Helvétius, Claude Adrien (1715-1771) French,

De l'Esprit (1758) [\Berlin]

Hel·vé·tius (hµl-v¶"sh...s, -v³"-, µl-v³-syüs"), Claude Adrien. 1715-1771. French philosopher and Encyclopedist who proposed his sensationalist philosophy in De l'Esprit (1758), a book that was condemned by the Paris parliament to be burned publicly. [99dic]

Blackstone, Sir William (1723-1780) see Edward Coke [15

Sir William. 1723-1780. British jurist and educator who wrote Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765-1769), the most comprehensive single treatment of the body of English law. [99dic]

                C30/Bestor/p21: Jefferson confided to Madison - "You will recollect that before the revolution, Coke (on) Littleton was the universal elementary book of law students, and a sounder whig never wrote, nor of profounder learning in the orthodox doctrines of the British constitution, or in what were called English liberties.  You remember also that our lawyers were then all whigs.  But when his black-letter text, and uncouth but cunning learning got out of fashion, and the honied Mansfieldism of Blackstone became the student's hornbook, from that moment, that profession (the nursery of our Congress) began to slide into toryism, and nearly all the young brood of lawyers now are of that hue.  They suppose themselves, indeed, to be whigs, because they no longer know what whigism or republicanism means." - Jeff even coupled Blackston with Hume, charging in 1814 that these two were "making tories" of the younger generation of Americans -